Unmasking the Dot Net InfoStealer: A Deep Dive into its Techniques


Recently, SonicWall Capture Labs Threat research team discovered a Dot Net stealer malware with enormous capabilities including stealing information from Browsers, VPNs, Steam profiles, installed Apps, Cryptocurrency wallets, Cryptocurrency wallets browsers extensions and sensitive device information. These capabilities provide attackers to obtain valuable information from the victim’s systems that can lead to big financial frauds which can make huge financial losses to victim.

Technical Analysis:

Once user executes the file, Malware starts with creating Mutex using GetCustomAttributes() API. After creating mutex it uses threading by using Task task = Task.Run() to perform stealing activity simultaneously.


Browsers Data:

First activity malware does is that it steals information from web browsers. Here malware divides the browsers into 2 categories, 1st is Chromium-based web browsers and 2nd is Gecko-based web browsers. First, it searches for the installed Chromium-based web browsers from the victim’s computer from which he wants to steal information.

Figure 1. Stealing Chromium based browsers information.

Below is the list of Chromium based browsers malware targets:

Chromium Google Opera ChromePlus Iridium 7Star CentBrowser
Chedot Vivaldi Kometa Elements Browser Epic Privacy Browser Microsoft Edge Uran
Sleipnir Citrio Coowon liebao QIP Surf Orbitum Comodo
Amigo Torch Yandex Comod 360Browser Maxthon3 K-Melon
Sputnik Nichrome CocCoc Chromodo Atom Brave

List of Gecko based web browsers that malware targets:

Mozilla Firefox Comodo IceDragon Mozilla SeaMonkey
Pale Moon Waterfox K-Meleon
Thunderbird Cyberfox BlackHaw

After searching for targeted browsers, if malware finds the any of above-mentioned browser directory on the victim’s machine, then steals data from that directory and keep the same in respected folder. For Example, if malware steals History data from Google Chrome and FireFox browser then it creates a folder with the name Histories and keeps the stolen History data of Chrome and Firefox in Google Chrome.txt and Firefox.txt respectively. As shown in below Figure 2.

Figure 2. Stolen browsers History

Here is list of data malware steals from browsers:

  • Login data
  • Cookies
  • Credit card data
  • Bookmarks
  • AutoFill data
  • History

If malware founds any of above-mentioned data, then it keeps its count also in Counter.txt file shown in below Figure 3.

Figure 3. Stolen data from browser with counter

In this malware binary, there is a function DetectCreditCardType() which is called if any Credit Card info found in above mentioned web browsers on the victims’ machine, then it checks that Credit Card number using Regular Expression with major Credit Card Companies which are already hardcoded present in malware as shown in below figure 4.

Figure 4. Credit Card Parsing

Stealing Clipboard Data:

After stealing browsers information, it obtains the clipboard data and keeps in “Clip_BoardText.txt” file and bundles it into a zip file as shown in the below Figure.

Figure 5. Stealing Clipboard Data

Crypto Wallet Extension:

Then this stealer malware extracts information from crypto wallet browser extensions. Right now, the malware only targets 3 browsers OperaOpera GX and Google Chrome. These extension IDs hard coded presents in the file.

Figure 6. Stealing information from Crypto Wallet browser extensions.

Below table shows the targeted crypto wallets with respective browser extension IDs:

Browser extension ID Extension Name
nkbihfbeogaeaoehlefnkodbefgpgknn MetaMask
ibnejdfjmmkpcnlpebklmnkoeoihofec TronLink
fhbohimaelbohpjbbldcngcnapndodjp Binance

Cryptocurrency Wallets:

This stealer not only steals Crypto Wallet Extensions information from browsers but also targets the Cryptocurrencies Wallets installed on victim’s system by looking for text ends with “wallet” or “json” into associated directories mentioned in below table. If any specified Cryptocurrency wallet found on victim’s system, then it reads all the information and bundles into a zip file with folder name “CryptoWallets” along with No. of counts of CryptoWallets in Counter.txt files which is also present in zip file.

Figure 7. Stealing Cryptocurrencies information

Here is the list of Cryptocurrency wallets which malware targets:

Cryptocurrency Name Targeted Directory
Electrum %AppData%\Roaming\Electrum\wallets
Electrum-Dash %AppData%\Roaming\Electrum-DASH\wallets
Ethereum %AppData%\Roaming\Ethereum\keystore
Exodus %AppData%\Roaming\Exodus\exodus.wallet
Atomic %AppData%\Roaming\atomic\Local Storage\leveldb
Jaxx %AppData%\Roaming\com.liberty.jaxx\IndexedDB\file__0.indexeddb.leveldb
Coinomi %AppData%\Local\Coinomi\Coinomi\wallets
Guarda %AppData%\Roaming\Guarda\Local Storage\leveldb
Armory %AppData%\Roaming\Armory
Zcash %AppData%\Roaming\Zcash
Bytecoin %AppData%\Roaming\bytecoin

Targeted Apps:

Malware does not stop after stealing Crypto wallets and extensions from browsers, then it looks for specified installed apps from the victim’s machine. Below is list of targeted apps which are also hardcoded in binary. If malware found the specified app on machine, then it creates text file with “AppName_log.txt” and writes all data in it.

Application Name



Pidgin defines itself as a chat program that lets you log into accounts on multiple chat networks simultaneously. The credentials targeted by the stealer are located in an XML file containing the account information (accounts.xml), which should be located under the “%ApplicationData%\.purple” directory. As shown in below Figure, After obtaining pidgin data, malware copies it into a text file with name “Pidgin_Log.txt” and bundle into a zip.

Figure 8. Stealing Pidgin data.


The FileZilla software program is a free-to-use (open source) FTP utility, allowing a user to transfer files from a local computer to a remote computer. This stealer will try to obtain the two files where the FPT client stores its passwords. Below table shows path where files will be located with description.

                         File                        Description
%AppData%\Roaming\FileZilla\recentservers.xml Contains the passwords associated with Site Manager
%AppData%\Roaming\FileZilla\sitemanager.xml Contains the passwords for QuickConnect


If malware founds above mentioned files, then XML documents will be examined to locate “Server” elements and extract the “Host,” “Port,” “User,” and “Pass” fields from each instance. “Pass” field will be decoded from Base64.The retrieved information will be saved in “FileZilla_Log.txt” file and bundle in into a zip file.

Figure 9. Stealing FileZilla Credentials


The stealer targets POP3 accounts and passwords associated with this mailing software. Inside FoxMail’s installation directory, there is a file named “Accounts\Account.rec0” where these credentials are stored. The location of the installation directory is obtained from following registry key:


Under the “\\Storage” directory, the stealer searches for all directories that match the regular expression “@”. It then attempts to locate the “Accounts\Account.rec0” file within these directories. If the file is found, it will be read and parsed to obtain POP3 account details and passwords. After this, malware copy stolen info into “FoxMail_Log.txt” and bundle it into a zip.



This stealer tries to steal information from Telegram in 2 ways as shown in below Figure 10. In a first way, it targets to installed Telegram app on victims’ machine by checking %AppData%\Roaming\Telegram Desktop\tdata directory. If the directory found, then collects all the file from that directory then bundle into zip file with the folder name “TelegramFiles/Installed/tdata”. Here malware Bypasses some files while collecting information from both installed Telegram app and Portable Telegram.


Below it the list of directories and files which malware bypass:

  • dumps
  • temp
  • user_data
  • user_data#2
  • tdummy
  • emoji
  • modules
  • exe
  • txt
  • .json
  • Dictionaries

In second way, Malware retrieves all running processes by using Process.GetProcesses() method. If it finds a process name starting with “Telegram” then retrieves all the information Bypassing above listed directories and files and put it into a zip file with the name “TelegramFiles/Portable

Figure 10. Stealing Information from Telegram App.

Apart from above mentioned apps, Malware also steals information from Discord App and keep in “Discord/Tokens.txt” and bundle into zip file. Then next it steals information from RDP files if present on victims’ system by searching for .rdp extension.


Targeted VPNs (Virtual Private Network):

After targeting Apps from victims’ machine, this stealer malware has the capabilities to steals VPNs information  from victim’s machine.

VPN Name    VPN Directories
ProtonVPN %APPDATA%\Local\ProtonVPN
OpenVPN %USERPROFILE%\ OpenVPN\config, %APPDATA%\Roaming\OpenVPN\config
KerioVPN %APPDATA%\Roaming\kerio


Stealing Steam Credentials:

Steam is a video game digital distribution service that provides automatic updates for various games. It is highly popular among gamers as it allows for multiplayer capabilities.

Figure 11. Stealing Steam ID.

As shown in above Figure 11, stealer reads all lines from “configloginusers.vdf” file and obtain steam ID. This obtained ID is then written into “SteamID_Log.txt” which will be stored in Steam folder.

Figure 12. Stealing Steam files.

As shown in above Figure 12, this stealer gets the Steam location of the victim’s system by targeting “SOFTWARE\\Wow6432Node\\Valve\\Steam” and “Software\\Valve\\Steam” directories using GetLocationSteam(). If Steam directory is found, then it copies all the files into “Steam” folder and escapes files which having “. crash” extension. After this, stealer also grabs config information and stores it into “Steam/Config” directory.


C2 Communication:

Figure 13. Uploading stolen data to C2

As shown in above Figure, malware adds header by using “DateTime.Now.Ticks()” which is used to Get the number of ticks that represent the date and time of this instance. After adding header malware bundles stolen data into a zip file and sends it to C2 server (hxxps://es-megadom.com) which is hardcode present in binary using the POST request method. As now writing this blog, while uploading data to C2 malware throwing Exception because it is down and terminating by returning false.



After stealing all important information from victim’s machine the last step malware does is, it bundles all this information into folder with name like “c33f028dee6e06ed_[mr0001]” which is obtained by performing some operation on victims UserName and MachineName and contacting “_[mr0001]” string as shown in below Figure.

Figure 14. Exfiltration File


As name suggests, ProcessInfo_Log.txt file contains All running processes with format like:

  • Process Name:
  • Process Tittle:
  • Process Path:

Figure 15. Obtaining running processes

Information.html file:

Information.html file contains all the following information of victim’s machine and all running process followed by process ID.

  1. Operating system
  2. Registered user
  3. Windows Product Code
  4. Computer name
  5. Logical processes
  6. System directory
  7. Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  8. Processor ID
  9. Screen resolution
  10. BIOS version
  11. Physical memory
  12. Memory type
  13. Video card
  14. Computer model
  15. Computer model manufacturerFigure 16. Stolen Systems information inside Information.html file

List of WMIQUERY used by malware to obtain above information from victims’ system.

  • root\\CIMV2″, “SELECT * FROM Win32_OperatingSystem
  • root\\CIMV2″, “SELECT * FROM Win32_Processor
  • root\\CIMV2″, “SELECT * FROM Win32_DesktopMonitor
  • root\\CIMV2″, “SELECT * FROM Win32_BIOS
  • root\\SecurityCenter2″, “SELECT * FROM AntiVirusProduct
  • root\\SecurityCenter2″, “SELECT * FROM FirewallProduct
  • root\\CIMV2″, “SELECT TotalPhysicalMemory FROM Win32_ComputerSystem
  • root\\CIMV2″, “SELECT * FROM Win32_PhysicalMemory
  • root\\CIMV2″, “SELECT * FROM Win32_VideoController
  • root\\CIMV2″, “SELECT * FROM Win32_ComputerSystem


Apart from all of this, malware has some additional capabilities like Taking Screenshots, Doing AntiVM checks and country check. In this sample malware author not using above mention functionalities. But in future it may use to make analysis of this binary more difficult and obtaining some additional information from victim’s machine.

Figure 17. AntiVM Code present in malware binary.


SonicWall Capture Labs provides protection against this threat via the following signature:

GAV: Passwordstealer.A (Trojan)

This threat is also detected by SonicWall Capture ATP w/RTDMI and the Capture Client endpoint solutions.

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The SonicWall Capture Labs Threat Research Team gathers, analyzes and vets cross-vector threat information from the SonicWall Capture Threat network, consisting of global devices and resources, including more than 1 million security sensors in nearly 200 countries and territories. The research team identifies, analyzes, and mitigates critical vulnerabilities and malware daily through in-depth research, which drives protection for all SonicWall customers. In addition to safeguarding networks globally, the research team supports the larger threat intelligence community by releasing weekly deep technical analyses of the most critical threats to small businesses, providing critical knowledge that defenders need to protect their networks.